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|Title:||Environmental consequences of nanotechnologies; Nanoparticle dispersion in aqueous media : SOP-T-1|
|Authors:||Environmental Quality Technology Research and Development Program (U.S.)|
Coleman, Jessica G.
Kennedy, Alan James, 1976-
Harmon, Ashley R.
|Publisher:||Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||ERDC/EL SR ; 15-2.|
Abstract: Homogenous dispersions of nanoparticles (NPs) for use in bioassay media for exposures/characterizations are a crucial need in ecotoxicology assays. The present protocol provides step-by-step methods for: (1.) creating a working stock from nanoparticle powder and nanoparticle aqueous suspensions, (2.) spiking working stock suspensions into aqueous bioassay media. The protocol also provides guidance on optimization of test media and organism health. Peer-reviewed publications and standards, with adaptations for aquatic bioassays are included. Users are directed to follow the protocol section relevant to their need and parent material (e.g. aqueous NPs or powder NPs). This protocol was developed on procedures created specifically for metal nanoparticles, but may have broader application. In an effort to validate procedural consistency, values associated with reference materials (RM) are included. The standard references include powder-based and aqueous suspensions from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and NanoComposix (NC); including aqueous suspension of NIST 30 nm Au and NC citrate-coated 30 nM Ag, and powdered NIST standard reference material 1898 TiO2. The Ag and Au reference materials were selected to represent moderately soluble and relatively insoluble materials, respectively. Values generated by the user testing the SRM materials should fall within the defined acceptability criteria ranges. If followed correctly, near-homogenous particle dispersions of the reference materials and a best case scenario for dispersion of test materials in aqueous media should be generated based on best procedural guidance available.
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