Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/11681/3267
Title: Heat dispersion in physical estuarine models. Report 1, State of the art
Authors: Zitta, Victor L.
Douglas, George W.
Keywords: Estuaries
Estuary
Estuarine models
Heat dispersion
Heat transfer
Hydraulic models
Publisher: Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; H-75-2 rept.1.
Description: Research Report
Abstract: Prototype heat exchange mechanisms and scaling laws for the reproduction of thermal phenomena in hydraulic models are presented for each stage of the dispersion process. These stages are : (A.) turbulent or momentum entrainment at the efflux jet, (B.) buoyant rise or fall of the heated plume, (C.) convective spread of the plume over the surface of the receiving waters, (D.) mass transport of the plume by ambient currents, (E.) diffusion and dispersion due to turbulence in the receiving waters, and (F.) surface heat exchange with the atmosphere. As with any modeling effort, it is impossible to adequately model all phenomena simultaneously with only one model. The area near the efflux jet where turbulent entrainment and buoyancy are the significant dispersion mechanisms is referred to as the "near field." In this area the densimetric Froude number is the scaling criteria for modeling entrainment and the path of the plume. The modeling of turbulent entrainment and buoyancy requires an undistorted-scale model to ensure similitude of turbulent diffusion. The area where convective spread, surface heat exchange, mass transport by ambient currents, and ambient turbulent diffusion are the important dispersion processes is referred to as the "far field." The scaling criterion for convective spread is the densimetric Froude number. The standard Froude number is the scaling criterion for the ambient currents where vertical distortion is usually required to ensure that Reynolds numbers are large enough to ensure fully turbulent flow in the model. If the main dispersion stages in the far field are ambient turbulence and convective spread turbulence, an undistorted-scale model is required since there is no known way of distorting turbulence. Similarity of surface heat exchange coefficients may require a distorted-scale model, but this distortion is to a limited degree compatible with the distortion required to ensure fully turbulent flow.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11681/3267
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