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|Title:||Erosion and riprap requirements at culvert and storm-drain outlets : hydraulic laboratory investigation|
|Authors:||Bohan, Joseph P.|
|Publisher:||Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Research report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; H-70-2.|
Abstract: Investigations were conducted in experimental facilities to determine the characteristics of scour below a culvert outlet discharging onto a horizontal blanket of cohesionless soil and to develop guidance for designing riprap protection downstream of culvert and storm-drain outlets. Scour holes, produced by the discharge of various flows of several durations through culverts of various shapes and sizes, were observed and contoured. These data were obtained for several tailwater conditions and were used to develop generalized expressions describing the maximum length, width, depth, and volume of scour as functions of the flow duration and the Froude number of flow at the culvert outlet. Dimensionless scour profiles and cross sections, for low and high tailwater conditions, were also developed. Riprap blankets of various configurations and stone sizes were tested with several culvert sizes and shapes and various tailwater conditions to determine when displacement or failure occurred. The results were used to develop generalized relations to describe the stone size and appropriate blanket configuration required to prevent blanket failure and soil erosion, respectively, at a culvert or storm-drain outfall.
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