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Title: Model studies of outfall systems for desalination plants. part II, Tests of effluent dispersion in selected estuary models. volume 1, Main text
Authors: United States. Office of Saline Water.
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.
Keywords: Effluent
Desalination plants
Saline water conversion plants
Ocean outfalls
Estuary outfalls
Hydraulic models
Waste brine
Heat pollution
Publisher: Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; H-71-2 pt.2 v.1.
Description: Research Report
Summary: The existing comprehensive fixed-bed models of San Diego Bay, Galveston Bay, and Delaware River located at the Waterways Experiment Station were chosen to study the dispersion of heated waste brine from desalination plant outfalls. These three models were considered to be typical of estuaries on which saltwater conversion facilities are likely to be located, and it was intended that information obtained from tests in these models be readily applied to other similar estuaries. The objectives of the tests were to determine dispersion rates of the brine waste, to define the dynamic equilibrium distribution of the waste after the plant being simulated has been in operation for some time, and in the case of tests in the Delaware River model, to determine the effects of freshwater inflow on dispersion rates and equilibrium values. Significant results of tests in the various models involving introduction of the heated effluent from a 10-mgd plant for considerable periods of time include: (A.) in estuaries such as San Diego Bay, where minimal tidal current velocities exist and very little fresh water discharges into the system, the dispersion and flushing rates will be extremely slow, and the time required to reach dynamic equilibrium will be comparatively long; (B.) in large, shallow estuaries such as Galveston Bay extreme care should be taken in selecting an outfall site since flow conditions in the immediate vicinity of the diffuser are highly significant in overall dispersion rates and may tend to trap the plant effluent; (C.) in estuaries similar to the Delaware River, having appreciable freshwater discharge and tidal currents and a reasonably regular shape, sufficient mixing and dispersion of the effluent will probably occur after the energy of the jet leaving the diffuser is expended; and (D.) the mixing and dispersion rates in estuaries similar to the Delaware River vary directly with total freshwater flow into the estuary, while the time to reach dynamic equilibrium varies inversely with total freshwater flow. NOTE: This file is large. Allow your browser several minutes to download the file.
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