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Title: Genetic and morphological differences of water chestnut (Myrtales: Lythraceae: Trapa) populations in the Northeastern United States, Japan, and South Africa
Authors: Dodd, Lynde L.
Rybicki, Nancy B.
Thum, Ryan A.
Kadono, Yasurō, 1952-
Ingram, Kadiera.
Keywords: Aquatic plants
Cryptic introductions
Invasive vegetative species
Morphological analysis
Trapa natans
Water chestnut
Issue Date: Mar-2019
Publisher: Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Technical Report (Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)) ; no. ERDC/EL TR-19-3
Abstract: Cryptic introductions are non-native species that have been introduced outside of native ranges; these introductions are undetected because the species have morphology similar to native or other non-native species naturalized within the same region. While non-native, invasive Trapa natans has been present in the Northeastern (NE) United States (U.S.) since the late 1800s, unpublished data suggests a new introduction of Trapa has occurred in the Commonwealth of Virginia. This population was distinct: it had 2-spined fruit as opposed to the typical 4-spined fruit associated with T. natans. It was therefore suspected as a cryptic introduction of Trapa species. This work aims to elucidate genetic and morphological differences of naturalized Trapa taxa (water chestnut) in the NE U.S. Comparisons of morphological characteristics and genetics were made between Trapa populations from the native regions of Eurasia and Africa versus those of the NE U.S. Results of the morphological analysis supported genetic results that 2-spine Trapa sp. and 4-spine T. natans in the U.S. were different, with the number of spines and the presence of a crown (Trapa sp. lacks a crown) as morphological taxonomic indicators. Given the problems associated with introduced water chestnut in the U.S., further investigation into the genetic and ecological characteristics of each distinct taxa are warranted.
Description: Technical Report
Gov't Doc #: ERDC/EL TR-19-3
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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