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dc.contributor.authorLundien, Jerry R.-
dc.contributor.authorMobility and Environmental Systems Laboratory (U.S.)-
dc.identifier.govdocTechnical Report No.3-693 Report 3-
dc.descriptionTechnical Reporten_US
dc.description.abstractLaboratory tests were conducted with radar sensors to detect the presence of and measure the depth to subsurface interfacec; when the surface was bare, and to determine the influence of vegetation at various stac;es of growth on radar responses. A secondary purpose was to continue earlier studies to relate radar returns and the electrical constants that they provided to moisture content and density of samples. Large laboratory samples were prepared at various moisture contents and densities and with various depths to a subsurface metal plate. Standard pulsed radar sensors operatinc; with frequencies of 297, 5870, 9375, and 34, 543 megacyclec/sec and directed at various angles of incidence to the surface were employed. The results of this laboratory study indicate that the standard pulsed radar sensors can provide information that will permit an estimate of the moisture content of deep, homoc;eneous soil samples and the detection of surface vegetation of various heights. Radar cignatures of vegetationcovered soil were more significantly altered at Ka-, X-, and C-band frequencies than at P-band frequencies. However, standard pulsed radar sensors used monochromatically cannot provide infonnation for predicting depth to subsurface interfaces or for directly indicating the presence of a subsurface interface. The systematic manner in which soil depths were varied in this study permitted an analytical solution to the problem of measuring depths of layers and led to the conclusion that properly designed radar systems could measure depths to subsurface interfaces. Three such systems are proposed.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipSponsored by National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Scientific Experiments Program for Advanced Orbital Spacecraft Missions (Manned), NASA Defense Purchase Request No. R.-25-04-001, Service Agency, U. S. Army Materiel Commanden_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsFOREWORD-iii GLOSSARY-vii SUMMARY-ix PART 1 : INTRODUCTION-1 Background-1 Previous WES Investigations-1 Purpose and Scope of Test Program-2 Current Investigations-2 Definitions-3 PART II : TEST FACILITY, RADAR SYSTEM, and CALIBRATION PROCEDURES-6 Radar Test Facility-6 Radar Sets -8 Syctem Calibration-14 PART III: TEST PROGRAM-18 Types of Tests-18 Materials Tested-18 . Preparation of Samples-18 Measurement of Reflectivity-20 PART IV: DATA ANALYSIS-24 Basis of Analysis-24 Analysis of Depth-of-Penetration Test Data-24 Analysis of Signature Test Data-37 Discussion of Test Results -38 PARr V: DISCUSSION OF VARIOUS RADAR SYSTEMS FOR DEPTH MEASUREMENT -49 Monopulse Radar System -49 FM Radar System-49 Variable-Frequency Radar System-50 PART VI: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS-53 Recommendations-53. LITERATURE CITED-55 TABLES 1-7 PLATES 1-23 APPENDIX A: DESCRIPTION OF MATERIALS-A1 Sharkey Clay-A1 Richfield Silt Loam-A1 Putnam Silt Loam and Clay-A1 Perlite-A1 APPENDIX B: CALCULATION OF NORMALIZED ECHO AREA-B1 Power Received PR-B2 Power Transmitted PT-B2 Antenna Gain G.-B2 viclusions-53-
dc.format.extent114 pgs / 11.19Mb-
dc.publisherU.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Stationen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesTechnical Report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station);no. 3-693 rept.2-
dc.rightsApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited-
dc.sourceThe ERDC Library created this digital resource using one or more of the following: Zeta TS-0995, Zeutcehl OS 12000, HP HD Pro 42-in. map scanner, Epson flatbed-
dc.subjectSoils--Electric propertiesen_US
dc.subjectSoil moisture--Measurementen_US
dc.titleTerrain Analysis by Electromagnetic Means. Report 2, Radar Responses to Laboratory Prepared Soil Samplesen_US
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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