Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: https://hdl.handle.net/11681/31597
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dc.contributor.authorBinder, Michael J.-
dc.contributor.authorCler, Gerald L.-
dc.contributor.authorConstruction Engineering Research Laboratories (U.S.)-
dc.date.accessioned2019-01-28T18:42:50Z-
dc.date.available2019-01-28T18:42:50Z-
dc.date.issued1996-01-
dc.identifier.govdocUSACERL Technical Report 96/26-
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/11681/31597-
dc.descriptionTechnical Reporten_US
dc.description.abstractCogeneration is the simultaneous generation of two types of energy, usually electricity and thermal energy, from a single energy source such as natural gas or diesel fuel. Cogeneration systems can be twice (or more) as efficient than conventional energy systems since both the electricity and the available thermal energy produced as a by-product of the electric generation, are used. This study identified cogeneration technologies and equipment capable of meeting Department of Defense (DOD) requirements for generation of electrical and thermal energy and described a wide range of successful cogeneration system configurations potentially applicable to DOD energy plants, including: cogeneration system prime movers, electrical generating equipment, heat recovery equipment, and control systems. State of the art cogeneration components are discussed in detail along with typical applications and analysis tools that are currently available to assist in the evaluation of potential cogeneration projects. A basic analysis was performed for 55 DOD installations to determine the economic benefits of cogeneration to the DOD. The study concludes that, in general, cogeneration systems can be a very cost effective method of providing the military with its energy needs.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipThis study was conducted for U.S. Army Center for Public Works (USACPW) under Project 4A162784AT45, "Energy and Energy Conservation"; Work Unit EQ-XV3, "Advanced Electrical Generation and Supply Technologies."en_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsSF 298 ........................................................... . Foreword ............... -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 List of Tables and Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Objective . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Approach ...................................................... 8 Scope ........_ . ............. . ................................ 8 Mode of Technology Transfer ...................................... 8 Metric Conversion Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2 Benefits and Potential Applications of Cogeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Advantages of Cogeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Packaged Cogeneration Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 PCS Applications and Market Potential . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Large Cogeneration Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Analysis Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 3 Cogeneration System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Simple Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Combined Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Reheat Combustors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Steam-Injected Gas Turbine or Cheng Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 lntercooled Steam-Injected Gas Turbine Cycle (1-STIG) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Air Bottoming Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Recuperated/lntercooled Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Anderson Quinn Cycle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Closed-Cycle Gas Turbine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Gas Turbine-Driven Packaged Cogeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Advancements in Gas Turbine Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Advanced Coal-Fueled Turbines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Engine-Driven Reciprocating Engine. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Gas Engine-Driven Packaged Cogeneration ........................... 31 Advancements in Gas-Fueled Engine Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Advanced Coal-Fueled Engine Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Generators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Heat Extraction Equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Absorption Chiller/Heaters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Advanced Absorption Cooling Technologies ........................... 43 Cogeneration System Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Gas Engine-Driven Cooling Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Fuel Cells . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4 Pertinent Issues Concerning Cogeneration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Ownership . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Environmental Regulations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Regulatory Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Utility Interconnection and Backup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5 Economic Benefits of Cogeneration to the DOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Data Collection and Reduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Cogeneration Evaluation for DOD Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Potential Economic Benefits to DOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 6 Conclusions and Recommendations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Appendix A: Available Computer Software for Cogeneration Analysis . . . . . . . . . . 71 Appendix 8: List of Cited Manufacturers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Distribution-
dc.format.extent129 pages / 9.155Mb-
dc.format.mediumPDF/A-
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherConstruction Engineering Research Laboratories (U.S.)en_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesTechnical Report (Construction Engineering Research Laboratories (U.S.));no. 96/26-
dc.rightsApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited-
dc.sourceThe ERDC Library created this digital resource using one or more of the following: Zeta TS-0995, Zeutcehl OS 12000, HP HD Pro 42-in. map scanner, Epson flatbed-
dc.subjectDirect energy conversionen_US
dc.subjectEnergy consumptionen_US
dc.subjectMilitary bases--Energy consumption--Evaluationen_US
dc.titleAssessment of Cogeneration Technologies for Use at Department of Defense Installationsen_US
dc.typeReport-
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