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dc.contributor.authorKeown, Malcolm-
dc.contributor.authorWest, Harold W.-
dc.contributor.authorMobility and Environmental Systems Laboratory (U.S.)-
dc.identifier.govdocTechnical Report M-77-4 Report 4-
dc.descriptionTechnical Reporten_US
dc.description.abstractAs part of the Army's continuing effort to maintain and enhance the natural resources of military installations, environmental quality managers must assess the impact of training activities on soil erosion. A methodology for use in assessing this environmental impact has been developed from studies conducted at Fort Carson, Colorado, by the U. S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. Six watershed study areas were selected at Fort Carson, each having an existing sediment catchment basin. These watersheds were considered to be representative of the soil types, vegetation cover, topography, and land use in the Fort Carson region. Borings were made in the catchment basins to determine the accumulated sediment volume. These data were used with the age and area of the basin to estimate the average annual sediment yield for each watershed. A watershed erosion index reflecting the collective influence of rainfall, soil erodibility, topography, and land use was derived using the Universal Soil-Loss Equation as a basis for development. A plot then was constructed relating average annual sediment yield and the watershed erosion index for each of the watershed study areas. The resulting correlation provides an estimate of the remaining life of existing catchment basins and a capability for evaluating soil loss in terms of military training schedules and determining the percent of catchment basin sediment volume attributable to military activity. Although the assessment methodology was developed for Fort Carson, the general procedures for establishing the correlation and using the methodology to assess the impact of military training activities on soil erosion are applicable to any military reservation, where there are existing catchment basins. In addition to its use as an assessment tool, the methodology can be used as an engineering design aid for the development of new sediment retention structure design parameters in terms of physical parameters that can be measured in the watershed above the site of the proposed catchment basin.en_US
dc.description.sponsorshipPrepared for Directorate of Facilities and Engineering, Fort Carson, Colorado and Office, Chief of Engineers, U. S. Army.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontentsPREFACE -2 CONVERSION FACTORS, METRIC (SI) TO U. S. CUSTOMARY AND U. S. CUSTOMARY TO METRIC (SI) UNITS OF MEASUREMENT-6 PART I: INTRODUCTION -7 Background-7 Purpose and Scope-8 Overview of Problem Solution-9 PART II: DEVELOPMENT OF THE WATERSHED EROSION INDEX-12 Field Mapping Unit Erosion Index Rainfall-12 Rainfall Factor-13 Soil Erodibility Factor-13. Slope-Length and Gradient Factor-15 Composite Land Use Factor -16 Computation of Watershed Erosion Index-17 PART III: SELECTION AND DESCRIPTION OF WATERSHED STUDY AREAS-19 Watershed Study Area Selection General Terrain Descriptions-19 Determination of Accumulated Sediment Volume in Watershed Study Area Catchment Basins-26 Data Needed to Compute Watershed Erosion Index-32 PART IV: ASSESSMENT OF THE IMPACT OF MILITARY TRAINING ACTIVITIES ON SOIL LOSS-67 Development of Predictive Technique to Estimate Average Annual Sediment Yield -67 Estimates of Average Annual Sediment Yield in Six Watershed Study Areas-71. Estimates of Remaining Life of Sediment Catchment Basins -73 Estimates of the Accumulated Sediment Volume Attributable to Military Training Activities-77 PART V: CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS-79 Conclusions-79 Recommendations-80 REFERENCES-84 TABLES 1-4-
dc.format.extent126 pages / 22.79Mb-
dc.publisherU.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Stationen_US
dc.relation.ispartofseriesTechnical Report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station);no. M-77-4 Rept.4-
dc.rightsApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited-
dc.sourceThe ERDC Library created this digital resource using one or more of the following: Zeta TS-0995, Zeutcehl OS 12000, HP HD Pro 42-in. map scanner, Epson flatbed-
dc.subjectEnvironmental protection--Colorado--Fort Carsonen_US
dc.subjectWildlife conservation--Colorado--Fort Carsonen_US
dc.subjectWater quality management--Colorado--Fort Carsonen_US
dc.subjectSoil erosion--Colorado--Fort Carsonen_US
dc.titleEnvironmental Baseline Descriptions for Use in the Management of Fort Carson Natural Resources. Report 4, Analysis and Assessment of Soil Erosion in Selected Watershedsen_US
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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