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|Title:||Fast, accurate two-person beach surveys|
|Authors:||Birkemeier, William A. (William Allen), 1951-|
|Publisher:||Coastal Engineering Research Center (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Coastal engineering technical aid ; no. 81-11.|
Abstract: Generally, the most accurate beach survey data are obtained using a surveying level to determine elevation and a tape to measure distance; however, this procedure requires a minimum of three people. Commonly used two-person surveying procedures are stadia surveying and the Emery method. In stadia surveying, a level is used to determine elevation; distance is indirectly determined by two additional readings of the level rod. This method gives the same elevation accuracy of level and tape surveying, but requires careful readings of the level rod to obtain accurate distances. The Emery method uses two 5-foot calibrated rods and the horizon to measure distances to, and changes in elevation between, two survey points. Errors are additive and large elevation errors are possible, particularly on wide beaches. This report discusses a modified stadia surveying procedure which, when used properly, is fast and produces data of comparable accuracy to level and tape surveying. Because more readings are taken (three per survey point), the data provide a higher degree of confidence than is available with the other methods. The modifications include the addition of two stakes to the profile line monumentation, pacing the distance between each point, and performing a simple mental field check of data quality. Using the stadia method, a typical profile of 10 to 15 survey points can be surveyed in 15 to 20 minutes including instrument setup time.
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Aid|