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Title: Creep of ice at low stresses
Authors: Butkovich, Theodore R.
Landauer, J. K. (Joseph K.)
Keywords: Ice
Ice creep
Compressive properties
Ice plasticity
Ice compaction
Publisher: U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (U.S. Army Snow
Description: Technical report
Low stress creep measurements were made on commercial ice and small-grained glacier ice in the temperature range from -1.3 to -18.9°C at stresses down to about 1 x 10^4 dynes/cm^2. The uniaxial stresses and strain rates were reduced to shear stresses and shear strain rates by respectively dividing and multiplying the former by √3. The log shear strain rate vs log shear stress curves was essentially linear for the low-stress creep measurements. Assuming a linear flow law for low-stress creep, activation energies for creep of about 14,300 cal/mole were determined. It can also be seen that the smaller-grained ice has a higher viscosity coefficient. The observed activation energy for creep of ice is probably that for self-diffusion. Although lacking a concrete deformation mechanism, the rate process theory, which leads to a hyperbolic sine stress dependence, seems to best describe the experimental results.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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