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Title: Strength studies of sea ice
Authors: United States. Hydrographic Office.
Air Force Cambridge Research Center (U.S.)
Butkovich, Theodore R.
Keywords: Sea ice
Sea ice strength
Shear strength
Strength testing
Sea ice mechanics
Ice cover strength
Publisher: U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (U.S. Army Snow
Description: Research Report
Summary: Investigations on sea ice at Hopedale, Labrador, March 1956, included: small beam tests and in-place cantilever beam tests for flexural strength; ring tensile-strength tests; unconfined compression tests, with stress-strain studies to determine "Young's modulus"; and double shear tests. The results exhibit a great deal of scatter, primarily due to the inhomogeneity of sea ice. Ring tensile strength values range between 3.3 kg/cm^2 and 22.3 kg/cm2 between -2.5°C and -19.1°C. The small beam tests give flexural strength values from 0.5 to 17.3 kg/cm^2 in a similar temperature range. The in-place pull-up cantilever beam tests give flexural strength values of 2.2 to 4.0 kg/cm^2, with much less scatter. Crushing strength values range from 26.3 to more than 107 kg/cm^2 in the range -4.9°C to -18.3°C. Values for Young's modulus obtained from the slope of the straight line portion of the stress-strain curves in compression ranged between 4520 and 10,225 kg/cm^2. There is a temperature dependence, explained by the effect of change in brine content, on sea-ice structure. The double shear tests give values of 7.8 to 34.2 kg/cm^2 in the range -5.5°C to -12.8°C. These are higher than the tensile-strength values. These failures occurred normal to the direction of growth, while the tensile strength was obtained with failure parallel to it.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
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