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Title: The flow law for ice
Authors: Butkovich, Theodore R.
Landauer, J. K. (Joseph K.)
Keywords: Ice
Ice creep
Ice mechanics
Glacier ice
Glacier flow
Creeo properties
Shear properties
Publisher: U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (U.S. Army Snow
Description: Research Report
Summary: The results of laboratory creep tests in a shear apparatus at -5°C on 2 x2 x 3/8 in. samples of commercial ice, artificial single crystals, and 6 types of ice from the Greenland Ice Cap, at shear stresses of about 0.5-3 kg/cm^2 are reported. Some uniaxial tests were made at stresses from 6-28 kg/cm^2 to supplement the shear tests. Creep data could usually be represented approximately by one or more linear sections on a log-deformation vs log-time plot. The linear sections of the double logarithmic curve imply a creep curve of the form ε=ct^m where ε is the strain. For all samples tested, except single crystals sheared in easy glide, m averaged 0. 5 for shear deformations up to about 1%, and approached unity for more deformation. For single ice crystals oriented for easy glide, m averaged 1.7, implying a strain softening. Single crystals oriented for hard glide behaved similarly to polycrystals, indicating a rate-controlling process such as dislocation climb. For all but single easy-glide crystals, the minimum creep rate was tangent to the deformation curve at the end of the experiment. Creep rates for single easy-glide crystals were several hundred times larger than for the other crystals, the flow laws being similar.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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