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Title: Properties of single crystals of ice, revealed by internal melting
Authors: Nakaya, Ukichirō, 1900-1962.
Keywords: Ice
Ice crystals
Ice crystal structure
Ice crystal formation
Publisher: U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (U.S. Army Snow
Description: Research Report
Abstract: Internal melting of a single crystal of ice causes a cavity, shaped like a flower of six petals, which is called a "Tyndall figure." This cavity is filled with water except for a vapor bubble. When refrozen, this bubble remains in the ice as a hexagonal disk which is called a "vapor figure". The composition, changes in shape, and properties of Tyndall figures and vapor figures were investigated. The plane of the Tyndall figure is always perpendicular to the c-axis and the direction of the branches coincides with the a-axis. The side of the hexagonal vapor figure coincides with the direction of the branches of the Tyndall figure. Once internal melting has taken place, the crystalline structure is disturbed upon refreezing and the fine layer structure of the crystal is revealed. Vapor figures were found to migrate and change in shape when a thermal gradient was applied across the sample. The experimental values for the migration velocity agree with the theoretical values. The deformation of the vapor figure under isothermal conditions was investigated and considered to be chiefly due to vapor transfer rather than migration of water molecules on the ice surface. NOTE: This file is very large. Allow your browser several minutes to download the file.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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