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Title: Determination of the modulus of elasticity of artificial snow-ice in flexure
Authors: Michigan Technological University.
Halvorsen, Leif Kornelius.
Keywords: Ice
Ice strength
Snow ice
Elastic properties
Snow mechanics
Publisher: U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (U.S. Army Snow
Description: Research Report
Summary: Studies were conducted on 58 snow-ice beams (7.5 cm wide, 10.0 cm high, and 56.0 cm long) ranging in density from 0.621 - 0.719 g/cm^3 under varying loads, at uniform loading rates (except for 23 beams which were tested with repeated loading), and at a constant temperature of -5 ± 0.5°C. All beams were tested to failure. The modulus of elasticity of the beams increased with density and loading rate. The modulus of elasticity ranged from 1.35 x 10^4 to 2.22x 10^4 kg/cm^2 for densities of 0.621 - 719 g/cm^3 respectively. A variation in the relative time of deflection from 42 - 23 sec/0.0200 cm gave a variation in the modulus of elasticity from 1.22 x 10^4 to 1.42 x 10^4 kg/cm^2. The modulus of rupture was roughly a linear function of density, increasing from 7.79 - 11.54 kg/cm^2 with density. Failure of the beams was sudden, with a conchoidal fracture occurring in the middle third of the span, and appeared to be a combination of shear and flexure.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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