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Title: Some physical properties of ice from the TUTO Tunnel and Ramp, Thule, Greenland
Authors: Butkovich, Theodore R.
Keywords: Glaciers
Glacier ice
Compressive strength
Tensile strength
Flexural strength
Elastic properties
Ice tunnels
Snow tunnels
Publisher: U.S. Army Snow, Ice, and Permafrost Research Establishment.
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Research report (U.S. Army Snow
Description: Research Report
Summary: Various mechanical properties such as strength, elastic modulus, and density of TUTO tunnel and ramp ice were determined. Results of unconfined compressive strength, ring tensile strength, and flexural strength tests are given. Photographs of included bubbles and grain size and shape are shown for each of six types of ice tested. Petrofabric diagrams for each type of ice are included. No significant differences in strength were found between horizontal and vertical cores in the ice tunnel, although differences between types of ice are noted. Crushing strength values found for tunnel ice generally fit the empirical equation relating crushing strength to density which was found for high-density snows (Butkovich, 1956a). However the values for ramp ice do not fit the equation when the average density values are used, probably due to the layering. The empirical equation relating ring tensile strength to density of high-density snows (ibid.) gives results approximately 20% greater than those obtained for tunnel ice. It appears that grain size influences the results. Ice with large grains consistently gives lower values. Flexural strength of the ramp ice is about half that of the tunnel ice. Comparing these results with the ring tensile values leads to the conclusion that the beams tend to fail in the lowest-density (mostly bubbly) bands. Temperature curves as a function of depth into the wall and along the tunnel length are presented. A 30-day study of deformation in a 100 x 30 ft room at 650 ft. into the tunnel indicated that the room is closing primarily by a block action, with rates of closure being less only very near the walls.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Research Report

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