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Title: Natural convection heat transfer in water near its density
Authors: Yen, Yin-Chao.
Keywords: Heat transfer
Heat transmission
Heat convection
Natural convection
Density currents
Fluid dynamics
Hydrodynamic stability
Ice-water systems
Temperature-density relationships
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: CRREL monograph ; 90-4.
Description: CRREL Monograph
Abstract: This monograph reviews and summarizes to date the experimental and analytical results on the effect of water density near its maximum on convection, transient flow and temperature structure characteristics: 1) in a vertical enclosure, 2) in a vertical annulus, 3) between horizontal concentric cylinders, 4) in a square enclosure, 5) in a rectangular enclosure, 6) in a horizontal layer, 7) in a circular confined melt layer, and 8) in bulk water during melting. In a layer of water containing a maximum density temperature of 4°C, the onset of convection (the critical number) is found not to be a constant value as in the classical normal fluid but one that varies with the imposed thermal and hydrodynamic boundaries. In horizontal layers, a nearly constant temperature zone forms and continuously expands between the warm and cold boundaries. A minimum heat transfer exists in most of the geometries studied and, in most cases, can be expressed in terms of a density distribution parameter. The effect of this parameter on a cell's formation, disappearance and transient structure is discussed, and the effect of split-boundary flow on heat transfer is presented.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Monograph

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