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Title: Frazil ice dynamics
Authors: Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Department of Civil Engineering.
Daly, Steven F.
Keywords: Crystal growth
Ice prevention
Mathematical analysis
Frazil ice
Ice crystals
Ice formation
River ice
Lake ice
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: CRREL monograph ; 84-1.
Description: CRREL Monograph
Abstract: To describe the dynamic evolution of frazil ice in turbulent natural water bodies, the basic equation for dynamic frazil crystal number continuity and the basic equation of heat balance for a differential volume are developed. Crystal growth and nucleation of new crystals are the major parameters in these equations. Expressions for the growth rate of frazil ice crystals are described. The growth rate along the major axis is controlled by heat transfer. The heat transfer coefficient is a function of crystal size, the fluid turbulence, and the fluid properties. The magnitude of inertial and buoyancy forces on the ice crystals are determined as is their influence on the heat transfer. Spontaneous nucleation of ice can be discounted ; secondary nucleation is responsible for the vast majority of frazil ice crystals. The theoretical rate of secondary nucleation is partially modeled as a function of the supercooling, fluid turbulence and crystal size distribution. A simple analytical solution of the basic equations is developed for the growth of frazil ice in a well-mixed, steady-state crystallizer.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Monograph

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