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Title: Developing acoustic technologies for improving fish passage and protection in the Columbia River Basin : program rationale
Authors: Nestler, John M.
George, John F.
Ahmad, Falih H.
Carlson, Tom.
Keywords: Fishways--Columbia River (Or. and Wash.)
Underwater acoustics
Publisher: Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.
Series/Report no.: Technical Report;EL-95-8
Abstract: Aquatic environments are rich in complex sound stimuli generated by wave action, internal structures of fishes, and movements of water, aquatic biota, and substrate. The capability of fishes to detect and respond to pressure and water particle motion components of sound fields is well documented. At every stage of their migration down the Columbia River system, smolts are acquiring and processing information using their sensory systems and responding in definite, and perhaps, very predictable ways. However, understanding this capability is limited by the inadequacy of standard acoustical or hydrodynamic methods to describe pressure and particle motion components of sound fields relative to fish sensory systems. There is no ambiguity, however, that fishes possess a very well-developed, highly sophisticated sensory system employed to perform those daily functions required to sustain life. It seems unreasonable to assume that fishes abandon these behaviors when they approach dams or enter intakes. Trade-offs between efficient hydrodynamic design of bypass system components and safe, effective fish passage may require an understanding of system sound fields relative to fish sensory systems. Recently completed research at The Dalles and McNary Dam underscores the importance of understanding sound fields generated in bypass systems relative to the sensory systems of fishes. Sound fields are generated when the high-energy flow fields of intakes are partially intercepted by screen designs that differ in structural complexity. Screen-specific differences in sound fields appear to produce variations in impingement characteristics. Site-specific differences in background noise levels and turbulence resulting from trashrack design, intake configuration, intake location, and powerhouse configuration probably mediate thresholds at which fish can detect sound fields generated by the screens. The above findings and recent advances in sound-based fish protection systems together indicate that acoustic technology has matured sufficiently, or could be expected to mature sufficiently in the near future, for application in the basin. The objective of this program rationale is to systematically develop sound-based fish protection technology to improve fish protection, passage, and health during migration through the hydrosystem. Program-level effort and support would be required to develop acoustic technology for widespread use in the Columbia River basin for the following applications : a.) Increase fish-guidance efficiency of bypass screens by modifying vertical distributions. b.) Increase fish-collection efficiency of surface-oriented collectors by modifying vertical and horizontal distributions. c.) Increase effectiveness of spilling by modifying horizontal distributions. d.) Enhance efficiency of collectors located upstream of dams by modifying vertical and horizontal distributions. e.) Repel juvenile salmonids from irrigation diversions. f.) Decrease entrainment of resident reservoir fishes during generation. g.) Attract upstream migrant adults to fish ladders and counting areas. h.) Repel adults to prevent fallback through turbines after successful upstream passage. I.) Repel squawfish from forebays and smolt bypass outfalls. j.) Attract squawfish to predator removal areas. The goal of this program is to develop acoustic technology to complement existing and planned programs having specific fish protection, passage, and health goals. The scope of this program will include both the needs and interests of the Department of Energy and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers. The program will be coordinated and partnered as much as the specific technical needs of the two agencies allow. Partnering opportunities with natural resource agencies, universities, Indian tribes, and the private sector will be pursued. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Fish Passage Development and Evaluation Program process will be used for program review and coordination.
Description: Technical Report
Gov't Doc #: Technical Report EL-95-8
Rights: Approved for Public Release; Distribution is Unlimited
Size: 39 pages/2.57 Mb
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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