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Title: Battlefield dust from exploding munitions : contribution by cratering from artillery and mortar projectiles
Authors: Strange, John N.
Rooke, Allen D.
Keywords: Dust
Military field engineering
Explosives, Military--Environmental aspects
Publisher: Environmental Laboratory (U.S.)
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.
Abstract: In this study, a data base was assembled and analyzed on explosion tests of artillery and mortar projectiles and uncased ("bare") charges intended to simulate projectile detonations. The data base represented over 550 tests, mostly in surface and near-surface geometries. Objectives of the study were to find volume-based soil scaling factors (VBSSFs) and crater-ejecta quantities that could be used with existing mathematical dust models, such as the Combined Obscuration Model for Battlefield-Induced Contaminants {COMBIC) to predict battlefield dust. Crater "shape factors" were developed for both bare charges and munitions to permit calculation of crater volumes based upon linear measurements and thus to enable determination of the VBSSFs. The study showed η to be equal to 0.87 for apparent crater volume and 1.0 for true crater volume. VBSSF values are presented graphically for different soil conditions. and charge positions. Increased moisture content was found to enhance crater size, whereas dense vegetation inhibited crater formation and ejecta distribution. Approximately 27 percent of the data base was suitable for calculation of ejecta quantities from sampling measurements or for inference of ejecta quantities by balancing crater volumes. Ratios of ejecta volumes to apparent crater volumes thus obtained were applied to the remainder of the data base to estimate ejecta volumes. A rational method for calculating bare-charge weight necessary to simulate munitions detonations was developed.
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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