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|Title:||Investigation of expanding grout and concrete. Report 1, Preliminary studies|
|Authors:||U.S. Atomic Energy Commission. Sandia Laboratories.|
United States. Defense Atomic Support Agency.
Houston, Billy J.
|Publisher:||Concrete Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Technical report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; C-70-2 rept.1.|
Abstract: Portland cement and grout are construction materials used in widely varied types of structures. One of the major disadvantages of these materials is drying shrinkage. Researchers have worked on this problem for many years, and technology has advanced to the point where products are now being manufactured which when used in portland-cement concrete can cause expansion to counteract shrinkage or, depending on amounts used, cause positive expansion. Two expansive mixtures were investigated in the program described herein: Type K expansive cement, which consists of Portland cement clinker, anhydrous calcium aluminate sulfate (C4A3S), lime (Cao), and calcium sulfate (CaSO4) ; and Type M expansive cement, which is a mixture of portland cement, calcium aluminate cement, and calcium sulfate. The purpose of the research effort was to develop expansive concrete and grout mixtures for use in structures in connection with underground nuclear testing. The first series of mixtures studied were Type M expansive cement grout mixtures and were concentrated toward the development of methods for evaluating expansive grouts and developing basic information. Items that affected expansion were: test specimen size, calcium aluminate cement and/or gypsum content in the mixture, particle size of gypsum, and w/c ratio. Stresses up to 750 psi were exerted by the grout when confined in a steel cylindrical container. Tests of neat grouts containing Type K expansive cement also indicated that w/c ratio affects expansion. Stresses up to 750 psi were exerted by the grout in steel containers. A greater part of the effort involved sanded grouts containing Type K expansive cement. Results indicated that increasing agitation time and mixer speed decreases expansion. Elevated temperature storage and high w/c ratios decrease expansion as either will cause more of the expansive reactions to occur before the grout hardens. Increase in amount of expansive cement increases expansion.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|
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|TR-C-70-2-Report-1.pdf||4.45 MB||Adobe PDF|