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|Title:||Wastewater stabilization pond linings|
|Authors:||Middlebrooks, E. Joe.|
Perman, Catherine D.
Dunn, Irving S.
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
|Series/Report no.:||Special Report;78-28|
|Abstract:||A review of the literature on wastewater stabilization lagoon linings covering the work during the past 20 years is presented. Design, operating and maintenance experiences are presented for soil sealants, natural sealants, bentonite clays, chemical treatments, gunite, concrete, asphaltic compounds, plastics and elastomers. The characteristics of various materials, applicability to different wastes, construction techniques and details of installation techniques are presented. Installation costs for various materials and comparative costs are summarized. A summary of reported seepage rates for various types of lining materials is presented. A survey of the 50 states was conducted to determine the requirements for liners and allowable seepage rates. Requirements are varied and depend upon the local soil conditions and the experiences of the regulatory agencies with various materials. The trend is toward more stringent requirements. Accepted design and installation procedures are summarized, and detailed drawings of installation techniques are presented. Recommendations of the manufacturers and installers of liners are also presented.|
|Appears in Collections:||Special Report|
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|Special Report 78-28.pdf||7 MB||Adobe PDF|