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Title: Determining lengths of return walls
Authors: Coastal Engineering Research Center (U.S.)
Keywords: Return walls
Wave forces
Florida method
Publisher: Coastal Engineering Research Center (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Description: Technical note
Problem: In order for a coastal structure such as a seawall or a bulkhead to function effectively throughout its design life, its ends should be tied to adjacent structures or extended landward far enough to prevent flanking which could cause the loss of backfill and the possible failure of the structure. The distinction between seawalls and bulkheads is mainly a matter of the structure's purposes. The primary uses of seawalls are to resist wave forces, while the purpose of bulkheads is to retain fill. Presented here is a method of determining the length of return walls (also called wing walls or end walls) at the ends of vertically-faced coastal structures, primarily seawalls and bulkheads. This method was developed for use on Florida's shores, but the basic method can be used with locally-gathered data for design of return walls elsewhere.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Technical Note

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