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Title: Low freshwater inflow study : Chesapeake Bay hydraulic model investigation
Authors: United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Baltimore District.
Richards, David R.
Gulbrandsen, Leif F.
Keywords: Chesapeake Bay
Hydraulic model
Neap-spring salinity response
Drought conditions
Cosumptive losses
Water consumption
Fresh water
Publisher: Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Technical report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; HL-82-3.
Description: Technical Report
Abstract: Future population increases in the Chesapeake Bay area will increase the demand for fresh water from its tributaries. A portion of this demand will be in the form of consumptive losses. In order to predict the impact of these consumptive losses on the Chesapeake Bay and future water resource programs, a study was initiated in a physical model of Chesapeake Bay to compare tide, velocity, and salinity data for a historical period of low flow with data resulting from freshwater inflow suppressed by the consumptive losses that may be expected some 50-60 years in the future. A base test simulating drought water years 1963-1966 was designed to reproduce known low-flow conditions, and a future test was designed to portray water years 1963-1966 combined with anticipated consumptive losses and diversions for 50 to 60 years in the future. Both tests contained a number of consecutively run, average year hydrographs to assess the bay's rebound potential following a drought period. Sampling for each test resulted in a data set that includes 7 years of continuous hourly tide records at 22 stations distributed throughout the bay, hourly current velocities over complete (13 hr) tidal cycles taken at 16 stations eight times, and approximately 250,000 salinity values during each test. There were 206 salinity sampling stations each having from one to five sampling depths. Analysis of the data could not address the entire data set; therefore, 32 stations were selected as being representative of the bay and generalizations were made on these stations to assess the effectiveness of the study. Results of the analysis show a general increase in salinity values in the future condition throughout the bay on the order of 1 to 3 ppt. The differences were greater or less locally depending on the station location. Little differences in tides and current velocities were noticed between tests. Variations in vertical salinity structures between spring and neap tide were seen at some stations in the bay, although there was generally little change resulting from the consumptive losses. The bay's rebound after drought conditions was assessed at several stations and the data indicated a return to a state of dynamic normalcy within 3 to 6 months at all stations analyzed for both tests. NOTE: This file is large. Alllow your browser several minutes to download the file.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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