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Title: Ship navigation simulation study, Lorain Harbor, Lorain, Ohio, volume 1 : main text
Authors: United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Buffalo District.
Thevenot, Michelle M.
Huval, C. J.
Daggett, Larry L.
Keywords: Navigation
Navigation channels
Channel design
Lorain, Ohio
Ship simulation
Track plot
Bank cut
Publisher: Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Technical report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; HL-93-15.
Description: Technical Report
Abstract: A navigation investigation of the proposed channel improvements to Lorain Harbor, Lorain, OH, was conducted. The authorized project called for three bank cuts. The research consisted of a two-phase ship simulation study. The purpose of the ship simulation study was to test the proposed bank cuts and recommend design modifications that would allow safe and efficient use of the channel by the 767-ft vessels currently used in Lorain Harbor. Two retired shipmasters from the USS Great Lakes Fleet (GLF) participated in Phase 1 , which was designed as a low-cost study providing a rapid assessment of the proposed design changes and potential project benefits. The Phase 1 testing was conducted with three different channel designs : the existing channel, the authorized project, and a design suggested by a shipmaster who navigates the river. Each numerical model began at the lake approach channel and continued to the upper turning basin. Phase 1 raised questions about the transit time benefits of the study. Therefore, the testing was continued During Phase 2, the existing channel and the authorized project were tested. However, the channel design recommended by a shipmaster was changed to reflect the channel requirements based on Phase 1 results, referred to as Plan 2a . Since no benefits were demonstrated by bank cuts downstream of the Norfolk and Western Railroad Bridge, the Phase 2 tests began at this bridge instead of the outer harbor. During Phase 2, the existing channel model was verified by two shipmasters from USS GLF. Tests were run on the ship simulator in which four shipmasters from the Great Lakes conned the simulated ship through the three simulated channel conditions. These tests showed that Plan 2a can be transited using a smooth and continuous motion in any of the conditions if the stern thruster is used. Maintaining a constant forward motion is safer than backing and filling as required in the existing condition. Backing decreases the control of the ship and increases risk to the propeller, rudder, and engine . Backing and filling also creates more chance of error due to the increase in number of operations. In addition, Plan 2a transit times remained within 3 minutes of the minimum transit time set by the maximum speed to navigate this channel. The other plans fluctuated two to three times as much. Plan 2a was recommended. Appendix A presents the shipmaster questionnaire and comments. Appendix B shows the track plot of each pilot's run.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Technical Report

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