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|Title:||Ship simulation study of John F. Baldwin (Phase II) navigation channel, San Francisco Bay, California|
|Authors:||United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. San Francisco District.|
Huval, C. J.
Garner, Robert T.
San Francisco Bay
John F. Baldwin Navigation channel
|Publisher:||Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Technical report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; HL-85-4.|
Abstract: The WES Research Ship Simulator was used to evaluate the design of Phase II of the John F. Baldwin Ship Channel and to study the impact of the deepened channel on the navi gability of large tankers inbound to the Long Wharf docking facility near Richmond Harbor. The present channel and maneuvering area is 35 ft deep and is inadequate for the larger tankers bringing crude oil from the Alaskan North Slope. The San Francisco District has proposed to deepen the channel to 45 ft deep. The authorized 35- ft-deep channel was simulated to verify the ship simulator setup as well as establish the base maneuvering strategies, and the proposed 45-ft-deep channel was simulated to study the proposed conditions. In addition to the tankers, containerships navigating into Richmond Harbor entrance channel were also simulated to investigate the impact of channel deepening on other ships using the maneuvering area. The proposed project will allow fully laden 87,000-dwt and partially laden 150,000-dwt tankers to unload at the Long Wharf. Present tanker operations require all but the smallest tankers to anchor in the main bay and off-load a substantial part of the cargo into shallower draft tankers that can be accommodated with the 35-ft-deep channel. The proposed channel will reduce transportation costs as well as reduce the possibility of oil spills in San Francisco Bay. As a part of the project, a reconnaissance trip was made to observe ship and pilot operations and to record the inbound trip into the Long Wharf maneuvering area on a typical tanker presently using the channel. The channel geometry, the overbank depths, and the visual scene were then developed for the simulator using maps and photographs of the project area. All important visual information was included so as to provide the proper visual cues to the pilot conning the ship. Special tests were conducted on the San Francisco Bay-Delta Model to gather realistic tidal current data for input into the ship simulator. All simulations were run with a 20-knot wind blowing from the southwest. Tests for the base and proposed channel conditions were conducted using 87,000-dwt partially laden (30-ft draft) and 150, 000-dwt partially laden (40-ft draft) tankers, respectively. Both flood and ebb current conditions were simulated. In addition to ship track plots, several other critical parameters were plotted and studied, such as ship speed and docking posture as it approaches the Long Wharf. The main containership used to simulate future size ships calling at Richmond Harbor was 810 ft long and 106-ft beam loaded to a 32-ft draft . A smaller containership with 638- ft length and 100-ft beam was also used to simulate present-day ship sizes. Test results indicate that it is very important to reduce tanker speed in Southampton Channel for inbound transits to about 5 knots before starting the large right turn into the maneuvering area. Acceptable docking postures can be achieved for both existing and proposed channel conditions under both ebb and flood tide so as to allow safe tanker docking into the Long Wharf. The containership tests indicate that it is reasonably safe to maneuver around the point and line up with the Richmond Harbor entrance channel on flood tide. Ebb tide conditions require very careful control of ship speed and position to execute a safe turn in the maneuvering area when piloting the 810-ft containership. The 638-ft containership was much easier to maneuver around the point.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Technical Report|
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|TR-HL-85-4.pdf||8 MB||Adobe PDF|