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dc.contributorUnited States. Bureau of Mines.-
dc.contributorSpokane Mining Research Center (U.S.)-
dc.contributor.authorTownsend, Frank C.-
dc.contributor.authorPeterson, Richard W.-
dc.descriptionTechnical Report-
dc.descriptionAbstract: Waste disposal schemes using spent shale in embankments require a thorough knowledge of its geotechnical engineering properties for environmentally safe disposal. In this context , the objective of this laboratory investigation was to determine the physical properties, geotechnical properties, and composition of spent oil shale retorted by the PARAHO and TOSCO processes. Physical properties consisted of mechanical analyses, Atterberg limits, and specific gravity determinations. Geotechnical engineering properties were determined by compaction, maximum-minimum density, unconfined compression, triaxial compression, permeability, direct shear, K𝗈, cyclic triaxial, resonant column, and Los Angeles Abrasion tests. Petrographic, chemical, and scanning electron microscopy analyses were used to determine compositional features. Unprocessed shale is hard and durable and more properly described as a carbonate rock instead of shale. PARAHO is classified as a GP, while TOSCO classifies as an SM. PARAHO requires no moisture for compaction to maximum densities; however , TOSCO does. Retorting causes a loss in durability but creates self-cementing characteristics, which for PARAHO a 3- to 8-fold strength increase was observed, while for TOSCO the increase was 1 5 to 3 folds. The shear strength, compressibility , and dynamic properties of compacted PARAHO are comparable to those for sandy gravels. Compacted PARAHO is semipervious, while compacted TOSCO can be semipervious to impermeable.-
dc.publisherGeotechnical Laboratory (U.S.)-
dc.publisherEngineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)-
dc.rightsApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited.-
dc.sourceThis Digital Resource was created from scans of the Print Resource-
dc.subjectOil shales-
dc.subjectOil shale testing-
dc.subjectOil shale analysis-
dc.subjectRock mechanics-
dc.subjectShear strength-
dc.subjectGeotechnical engineering-
dc.titleGeotechnical properties of oil shale retorted by the PARAHO and TOSCO processes-
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