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Title: Benchmark design and installation : a synthesis of existing information
Authors: Gatto, Lawrence W.
Keywords: Benchmark
Frost heave
Stable benchmarks
Survey monuments
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Description: Special Report
Abstract: Techniques used for topographic, hydrographic, construction, boundary, geodetic and structural movement surveys are only as accurate as the benchmarks used as reference. In northern areas, frost action can cause substantial vertical movement of benchmarks. Benchmarks may also subside or shift in wetlands and coastal areas. Various benchmark designs and installation procedures reduce or eliminate movement, but information on the designs and procedures is widely scattered and not available to Corps of Engineers Districts in one report. This report is a synthesis of information compiled from surveys of Corps of Engineers Districts and Divisions, U.S. and Canadian government agencies, private industry and a literature review. Matrices for selecting and installing benchmarks that meet third-order accuracy requirements or better and that are appropriate for various climatic and soil conditions were prepared from the synthesized information. Procedures to be followed while installing various types of benchmarks are included.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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