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|Title:||The effects of temperature on germination of eleven Festuca cultivars|
|Authors:||Palazzo, A. J. (Antonio J.)|
Brar, Gurdarshan S.
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 97-19.|
Abstract: Many studies have shown that water potential at planting affects the germination rate and final germination of Festuca cultivars. Limited information is available about the extent of variability in temperature-dependence of germination among different Festuca cultivars. Our objective was to study germination at five temperatures for a wide range of Festuca cultivars. Festuca seeds were screened for germination during 28 days in polyethylene growth pouches held at constant temperatures of 10, 15, 20, 25, or 30°C. The germination percentage significantly (p < 0.05) increased as the temperature increased from 10 to 15°C, when averaged across the cultivars, and decreased thereafter. The cultivar “Clemfine” tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) had the greatest germination percentage, and “Arctared” red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) had the least when averaged across the five temperatures. Conversely, the average time to germination (Atg) was greatest at 10°C and least at 30°C. Reaching a germination level of 80% or more of the seeds required 14 days at 10°C, 9 d at 15°C, 8 d at 20°C, and 7 d at 25 or 30°C. Base temperatures required for germination of Festuca species were 3.2°C for rapid germinators, 3.6 to 6°C for medium germinators, and 4 to 6°C for poor germinators. Heat units (growing degree-days >10°C) calculated for the rapid germinators were 129°C-d, 120 to 140°C-d for medium germinators, and 135 to 191°C-d for the poor germinators. Germination decreased as heat units were increased. The Atg and heat unit regressions explained 91% and 66% of the variations in germination, respectively. The optimum temperature for germination of Festuca cultivars was 15°C. Seeding time for some Festuca cultivars could be varied based on expected seed zone temperatures for particular locations. Results of this study should be interpreted with caution, but they suggest that selection for rapid growth rate among materials of favored phenological patterns may lead to improved establishment of faster species on poorly managed sandy soils in cold climates. Rapidity and total germination are the most obvious factors distinguishing Festuca cultivars. This study demonstrates the variability in cultivar germination in response to temperature.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Special Report|
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