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Title: Assessment of sampling error associated with collection and analysis of soil samples at a firing range contaminated with HMX
Authors: U.S. Army Environmental Center.
University of New Hampshire. Dept. of Chemistry.
Science and Technology Corporation (Hampton, Va.)
Defence Research Establishment Valcartier.
Canada. Dept. of National Defence.
Jenkins, Thomas F.
Walsh, Marianne E.
Thorne, Philip G.
Thiboutot, Sonia, 1962-
Ampleman, Guy, 1954-
Ranney, Thomas A.
Grant, Clarence L.
Keywords: Analytical error
Soil pollution
Soil analysis
On-site analysis
Spatial heterogeneity
Colorimetric methods
Firing range
Sampling error
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 97-22.
Description: Special Report
Abstract: Short-range and mid-range (grid size) spatial heterogeneity in explosives concentrations within surface soils was studied at an active antitank firing range at the Canadian Force Base-Valcartier, Val-Bélair, Quebec. The range has been in use for over 20 years. Intensive sampling was conducted over short distances using a 6-m square grid (36-m^2) pattern including two target tanks. Sixteen grids were installed. Four area-integrated surface samples were formed into piles, one in each quadrant of each grid, using a circular pattern that included about 10% of the top 5 cm of the quadrant. After in-situ homogenization of a pile, several random aliquots were combined to form a representative sample. Replicates were collected to assess the representativeness achieved. In addition, grid composites were prepared by combining equal portions of the four subgrid samples for each of sixteen grids. In nine of the subgrids, a second area integrated sample was prepared. On-site analysis showed concentrations of HMX ranging from as high as 1640 mg/kg near one target to 2.1 mg/kg at a distance of 15 m from the target. On the other hand, TNT concentrations were much lower than would be expected based on the 70:30 composition ratio of HMX to TNT in the melt-cast explosive used on site. A colorimetric method, originally developed to analyze for RDX, was found to provide concentration estimates for HMX that were in excellent agreement with laboratory results. Spatial heterogeneity of HMX concentrations was large on both short- and mid-range scales and this factor dominated the overall uncertainty associated with site characterization. Relatively minor uncertainties were due to analytical error.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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