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|Title:||On-site analysis for high concentrations of explosives in soil : extraction kinetics an dilution procedures|
|Authors:||U.S. Army Environmental Center.|
Jenkins, Thomas F.
Schumacher, Patricia W.
Mason, Jane G.
Thorne, Philip G.
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 96-10.|
Abstract: Soils containing high concentrations (>10%) of secondary explosives might detonate from shock or flame, resulting in human injuries or equipment damage during remediation activities. In lieu of expensive and time-consuming protocols involving impact tests, friction tests, and shock gap tests, compositional analysis has been recommended as an expedient method to assess the risk of detonation from heavily contaminated soils. A number of methods now available allow determination of TNT and RDX on site. All of these methods specify solvent extraction with either acetone or methanol to transfer the analyte from the soil matrix to a solvent as the first step in the determination. The rate of extraction of TNT and RDX, when present at percent levels in soil, has not been determined. Protocols currently in use specify very short extraction times (one to three minutes) and results could be biased low if extraction kinetics are slow. The objective of this work was to document the rate of extraction of secondary explosives by acetone and methanol and make recommendations for possible modification of current protocols if warranted. Because solvent extracts from highly contaminated soils will have very high concentrations of secondary explosives, compared with the range of concentrations that can be determined using the various on-site methods, large dilutions will be required. Recommendations are made for a field-expedient method making appropriate dilutions.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Special Report|
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