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Title: Winter habitats of Atlantic salmon, brook trout, brown trout and rainbow trout: a literature review
Authors: U.S. Forest Service, Department of Agriculture
Calkins, Darryl J.
Keywords: Ice conditions
River ice
Winter habitat
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 89-34.
Description: Special Report
Abstract: A review of winter habitat studies in ice-covered streams for four species of salmonid (Atlantic salmon, brook trout, brown trout and rainbow trout) provided some general information on substrate conditions and focal point velocities and depths. All species of fry are found at depths less than 40 cm and at velocities of 10 cm/s or less; juveniles of all species are found at velocities of less than 15 cm/s. A lack of continuous physical, chemical and biological measurements throughout the ice-covered season was a common deficiency of the studies reviewed. The interaction of the ice cover with other physical processes in the stream was rarely addressed.
Rights: Approved for Public Release, Distribution is Unlimited
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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