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dc.contributorUnited States. Environmental Protection Agency.-
dc.contributor.authorIskandar, I. K. (Iskandar Karam), 1938--
dc.descriptionSpecial Report-
dc.descriptionAbstract: This report reviews the literature concerning the effects of ground freezing on uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Since there was very little information directly related to hazardous waste materials, previous studies on the beneficial use and impact of freezing on wastewater, sea water, sludges and soils have been included. Freezing of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites may cause frost heaving of buried waste material, allowing chemical wastes to move upward, and chemical transport of ions in freezing and frozen soils. Also, repeated cycles of freeze-thaw may adversely affect the durability of clay liners being used to cover hazardous waste sites. Ground freezing can be used beneficially to 1) dewater and consolidate hazardous waste materials, particularly slurry-type wastes; 2) serve as an alternative to slurry walls, trenches, etc., to separate contaminated areas; and 3) immobilize the contaminants, particularly if time is a critical factor. All hardware needed for artificial ground freezing is available, and in the United States there are at least three commercial firms equipped to do such work. In addition to the versatility of this technique, little or no environmental impact is associated with its use. A hypothetical example using artificial ground freezing is presented to illustrate both the data needed to analyze a situation and the costs involved.-
dc.publisherCold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)-
dc.publisherEngineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)-
dc.relation.ispartofseriesSpecial report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 86-19.-
dc.rightsApproved for public release; distribution is unlimited.-
dc.sourceThis Digital Resource was created from scans of the Print Resource-
dc.subjectGround freezing-
dc.subjectHazardous materials-
dc.subjectHazardous waste-
dc.subjectWaste management-
dc.titleEffect of freezing on the level of contaminants in uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. Part 1, literature review-
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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