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Title: A laboratory comparison of field techniques for measurement of the liquid water fraction of snow
Authors: United States. Army. Office of the Chief of Engineers
Boyne, Harold S.
Fisk, David J.
Keywords: Alcohol calorimetry tests
Dielectric snow moisture meter
Dilution tests
Freezing calorimetry tests
Laboratory tests
Liquid water fraction
Remote sensing
Snow cover
Snow liquid water fraction
Snow measurement
Wet snow
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 90-3.
Description: Special Report
Abstract: The amount and distribution of liquid water in a snow cover is important for assessing its mechanical strength, meltwater generation and meltwater transmission. It also has a profound effect on the performance of active and passive remote sensing systems operating in the microwave and millimeter wave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. New methods of measuring liquid water have been reported that show considerable promise. This report describes tests of measurement equivalence, in which are compared the three absolute methods of freezing calorimetry, alcohol calorimetry and dilution. Also compared are a calibrated capacitance snow moisture meter and one of the absolute methods. All comparisons were made in a laboratory coldroom using homogeneous snow with a mass liquid water content that varied from 0 to 14%. The comparisons show that the methods are equivalent and that the experimental errors associated with the measurements are consistent with what is expected from an error analysis of each method. However, the operational achievement of equivalence depends strongly on a variety of factors such as sample size, mixing of snow and working fluid, and operator skill.
Rights: Approved for Public Release, Distribution is Unlimited
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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