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|Title:||Bottom heat transfer to water bodies in winter|
|Authors:||U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station.|
O'Neill, Kevin, 1946-
Ashton, George D.
|Publisher:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 81-18.|
Abstract: In many surface water bodies, water temperature closely follows ambient air temperature. This means that warmer water in winter absorbs heat from below. The extent and pattern of winter heat gain is constrained by the fact that the water temperature does not fall below the freezing point. On the basis of a few simple assumptions, governing equations are solved here pertaining to heat flow in bottom sediments. The results are presented in general nondimensionalized curves. These allow estimation of water/sediment heat flux for any particular case, given truncation of the water temperature curve at the freezing point. The user must supply pertinent yearly air temperature mean and amplitude of variation, together with the thermal diffusivity for the bottom material. The governing equations are solved using a higher order finite element method which solves directly for temperature gradients and hence for heat flux. Thus the method provides particularly accurate flux values at high efficiency. The results illustrate in detail how winter water heat gain is less in cases where mean air temperatures are lower.
|Rights:||Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.|
|Appears in Collections:||Special Report|