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Title: Bullet penetration in snow
Authors: Cole, David M.
Farrell, Dennis R.
Keywords: Bullets (projectiles)
Laboratory tests
Small arms
Projectile penetration
Penetration tests
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 79-25.
Description: Special Report
Abstract: The purpose of this work was to investigate the behavior of small arms ammunition in snow under laboratory conditions. Knowledge of this behavior will lead to more efficient design of expedient field fortifications using snow as the primary construction material. Three types of ammunition, the M 193, M80, and M43, were tested. Rounds were fired into snow targets of various thicknesses up to that thickness required to fully stop the projectiles. The maximum penetrations for the three rounds tested were 0.70m, 1.26m and 1.06m respectively. Velocity loss as a function of target thickness was determined by measuring projectile velocity before and after impact of the projectile with the target. The velocity-loss-versus-thickness data showed a sigmoid shape common to the three types of rounds. The impact and exit yaw angles of the M193 rounds were estimated. Scatter in the test data was attributed, in part, to random variations in the impact yaw angle. The penetration required for a 90° yaw was determined by the exit yaw measurements. This was shown to correspond to the inflection point on the velocity-loss-versus-penetration curve. This point is potentially significant in the design of composite fortifications. Discussions deal with basic concepts and definitions, the occurrence and significance of projectile tumbling and the use of laboratory tests for small arms evaluation in snow targets. The validity of the methodology used was established by testing M193 rounds in gelatin targets. These results compared favorably with similar test results in the literature.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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