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Title: Solving problems of ice-blocked drainage facilities
Authors: Carey, Kevin L.
Keywords: Ice control
Ice prevention
Cold regions
Ice blockage
Problem solving
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 77-25.
Description: Special Report
Abstract: Winter ice formation in culverts, ditches, subsurface drains, and other drainage facilities poses problems for maintenance personnel who must keep these facilities open to carry flow. Generally the ice formation reduces or blocks flow cross-sections, so that flow is either restricted, stopped completely leading to ponding, or diverted to other areas intended to be kept drained. Ice formation is the result of heat-loss from the water, which depends on the degree of exposure of the water to the atmosphere, and on the air temperature. A further critical factor is depth-of-flow, because greater depths of flow permit an ice cover to form but allow flow to continue underneath, while smaller depths of flow freeze completely leading to flow blockage. The report summarizes several processes for ice formation and blockage in culverts, ditches, and subsurface drains. Solutions to ice blockage problems involve ice prevention and ice control, usually the latter. In some cases, culverts can be closed, leading to intentional ponding and storage of ice. Alternatively, flow can be maintained in culverts by heating them electrically, with steam, or with oil-burner heaters. Ditches can also be heated, but it is usually more effective to widen them to provide more storage space for ice, or to install insulating covers. Subsurface drain outlets can be heated, protected with insulating covers, or partially blocked to prevent cold air entry. Ground seepage that forms ice is successfully controlled using ice fences. Design changes, such as more and larger drainage structures, staggered culverts, and channel modifications, are discussed. Four CRREL publications are cited as sources of additional information.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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