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Title: Composite sampling of sediments contaminated with white phosphorus
Authors: United States. Army. Alaska.
University of New Hampshire.
U.S. Army Environmental Center.
Walsh, Marianne E.
Collins, Charles M.
Bailey, Ronald N.
Grant, Clarence L.
Keywords: Eagle River Flats
Site characterization
Environmental sampling
White phosphorus
Contaminated sediments
Eagle River Flats, Alaska
Fort Richardson, Alaska
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 97-30.
Description: Special Report
Abstract: White phosphorus from exploded munitions is a difficult contaminant to characterize in the environment. Spatial heterogeneity of concentration estimates is extreme, varying over many orders of magnitude for closely spaced discrete samples. To provide cost-effective data upon which decisions may be made, two composite sampling methods were designed to aid in characterizing the site and monitoring the remedial process for an area contaminated by white phosphorus. For each method, closely spaced discrete samples were collected on a grid pattern and pooled to form composites. The composites were then divided by size fractions. Mean white phosphorus concentrations were estimated for the fine-grain-size fraction that was obtained by suspension with water. The presence of highly toxic solid white phosphorus particles, the form that may be ingested by feeding waterfowl, was determined in the coarse-grain-size fraction that was obtained by sieving.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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