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Title: Seeking low ice adhesion
Authors: Sayward, John M.
Keywords: Adhesion
Ice control
Organic compounds
Silicon compounds
Ice prevention
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 79-11.
Description: Special Report
Abstract: Icing impairs operation of helicopters and other aircraft, antennae, power and communication lines, shipping and superstructures, canal locks, etc. Prevention or easier removal of icing requires reduction of its adhesion strength. Literature study shows that adhesion results from secondary (van der Waals) forces yet exceeds normal cohesive strengths. It depends on free surface energy, low contact angle, good contact and wetting, cleanliness, and texture. Modes of adhesion testing are briefly discussed. Poor adhesion occurs with low energy surfaces or contaminants, e.g. hydrocarbons, fluorocarbons, waxes, oils, etc., particularly when textured or porous. The resulting low contact angle, poor wetting and occlusion of air at the interface weaken the bond or provide stress loci which can initiate cracks and failure. Coefficient of expansion differences may help in release of ice. Further ideas appear among the 100 abstracts presented. A survey of over 300 manufacturers produced over 100 replies. Half of them offered some 100 products deemed worth testing. These are listed with addresses and contacts. Besides simple resins and other release agents, they include composites which combine low surface energy and stronger materials as micro-mixture, interpenetrating-network, "plastic-alloy," or filler-matrix systems. About 15 to 20 products appear of special interest. Samples of liquid coating or supplier-prepared panels of many are available for the testing phase to follow.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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