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Title: Increasing the effectiveness of soil compaction at below-freezing temperatures
Authors: Michigan Technological University. Department of Civil Engineering
Haas, Wilbur M.
Alkire, B. D.
Kaderabek, Thomas J.
Keywords: Additives
Below freezing temperatures
Soil capacity
Soil compaction
Soil density
Soil stabilization
Frozen ground
Frozen soils
Frozen ground compression
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 78-25.
Description: Special Report
Abstract: This report presents data from an experimental program undertaken to determine the effect of low temperatures on the compaction characteristics of a silty sand. The effects of compactive effort and chemical additives were also investigated to determine possible methods of improving the densities of soils placed and compacted at low temperatures. A single soil type was used throughout the test program and test results were obtained using Standard and Modified AASHO compactive efforts on an untreated soil prepared and tested at temperatures of 20°C and -7°C. Additional test series, using the same compactive efforts and temperatures, were performed on the soil after it had been treated with an additive. The amounts of additive used, based on the dry weight of soil, were 3, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.25% of calcium chloride and 0.5% of sodium chloride. From the results of the experimental program, several i mportant conclusions concerning the effect of low temperature compaction were drawn: a) For similar test conditions, the dry unit weight of a frozen compacted s oil is less than for an unfrozen compacted soil. b) The dry unit weight of a frozen soil is inversely proportional to the amount of ice in the soil pore space. c) Chemical additives can be effectively used t o offset the adverse effect of low temperature on the compaction characteristics of a soil. d) The effect of chemical additives on the compaction characteristics of a soil compacted at temperatures below 0°C can be predicted using phase equilibrium concepts from physical chemistry. Based on these conclusions, it is recommended that additional experimental work be completed to supplement the data already generated and to verify the general approach used in the analysis. A test program using a differents oil type, a wider range of water contents and a more typical gradation of frozen particle sizes would meet these objectives. NOTE: This file is large. Allow your browser several minutes to download the file.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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