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Title: Whiteout modification experiments using ground based systems
Authors: Bortell, P.
Hicks, James R.
Keywords: Ice fog
Arctic regions
Antarctic regions
Cold regions
Arctic whiteout
Weather control
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 85.
Description: Special Report
Introduction: "Arctic Whiteout" is a major weather phenomenon which affects air and ground movement in regions where a continuous snow cover exists. Air transportation is especially hazardous during these whiteout periods because of poor visibility and the lack of a natural horizon and other visual references. These "whiteouts" may be caused by one, or a combination, of five weather phenomena: 1) blowing snow, 2) precipitating snow, 3) ice fog, 4) water fog and 5) a low, dense overcast (Gerdel and Diamond, 1956). The water-fog and overcast types are usually composed of supercooled water droplets and, therefore, are amenable to dissipation by the introduction of freezing nuclei. Furthermore, since these types usually occur during periods of relatively light winds, the possibility of using ground-based equipment is enhanced. USA CRREL Technical Report 158, "Summary of Whiteout Studies Conducted by USA CRREL" (1964), described the work done by this laboratory during the period 1954-1963. This report tells of the research done since then.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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