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Title: The freezing index in New England
Authors: Gilman, George D.
Keywords: Building
Cold regions
Cold weather conditions
Freezing index
New England
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 63.
Description: Special Report
Background: Seasonal freezing occurs throughout the six New England states, varying from generally mild in the south coastal regions of Massachusetts, Rhode Island, and Connecticut to severe in northern Maine and in the higher elevations of Vermont and New Hampshire. Throughout the area, design of pavements and foundations must consider the effect of freezing in underlying soils, and adequate cover must be provided to prevent freezing of underground utilities. Since freezing conditions vary from year to year, the depth of seasonal freezing will vary accordingly and design should consider the colder rather than the average or normal winter. The depth to which freezing will penetrate is influenced by many factors such as soil properties, surface conditions, depth and duration of snow cover, solar effects, and wind effects, but is principally dependent upon the amount of water available within the soil and the magnitude and duration of below freezing temperatures. Extensive field and laboratory investigations have been and are being performed to define the soil and water conditions which will result in ice segregation and detrimental frost effects and to determine the effect of the other factors. From the results of these studies, methods for calculating the depth of freezing have been established, and empirical relationships have been prepared. By any established procedure, however, the most economically adequate design is dependent upon the selection of a realistic freezing index value for the site. To assist the designer in this selection, this report presents a summation of normal and colder-than-normal air-freezing indexes for New England. Freezing index maps and empirical relationships are included for use when adequate local data are not available.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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