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Title: Flexural properties of snow and snow-ice
Authors: Thayer School of Engineering.
Stearns, Stephen Russell, 1915-
Keywords: Snow
Snow properties
Flexural properties
Publisher: Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 59.
Description: Special Report
Summary: One testing objective was to determine if small, select samples of natural snow-ice, tested in bending, would provide consistent and higher values for the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity. Another objective was to investigate the surface bearing properties of snow-ice layers, formed during winter on lakes or rivers, which are often separated from clear ice by an interlayer of slush or water. Samples of this type of snow-ice were obtained from Post Pond in New Hampshire. The other forms of ice-cap snow, natural snow (top and 15-ft depth), and high-density snow were tested during two summers on the Greenland ice cap. Densities in all cases were obtained by cutting a cube of snow from the sample beam adjacent to the break. The apparatus used in testing the Post Pond snow-ice beams was a modification of a Soiltest hand-operated press with a 0- to 5000-lb wooden, three-point load device. Dense snow-ice at +5° had high flexural strength (avg. 347.5 psi) and a high modulus of elasticity (avg. 6. 08 x 10^5 psi), probably the result of a large, interlocking crystal structure. The apparent relationship between modulus of elasticity and density of snow-ice is affected by the rate of loading and temperature. There appears to be a relationship between density and flexural strength for snow, snow-ice, and high-density snow in the natural undisturbed state; but processing, including snow compaction, lowers the tensile strength at early ages. The formulas used in computations are given and test results are tabulated and summarized.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Special Report

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