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Title: Sulfate soundness : sulfate attack and expansive cement in concrete
Authors: United States. Army. Office of the Chief of Engineers.
Mather, Bryant.
Keywords: Aggregates
Concrete durability
Expansive cements
Sulfate resisting cements
Publisher: Concrete Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Miscellaneous paper (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; C-69-8.
Description: Miscellaneous paper
Abstract: The phenomena related to the formation of hydrated sulfates in concrete, or in aggregates, cement pastes, or mortars, have been investigated for many years for a variety of purposes. The cyclic immersion of aggregate particles in solutions of sodium or magnesium sulfate, followed by drying, is the basis of one of the oldest procedures employed to develop data purported to relate to aggregate "soundness." The storage of mortar specimens in sulfate solutions is the basis of many tests for sulfate resistance of cements. Sulfate-resistance testing procedures in which the mortar is mixed with added sulfate and the specimens are stored in water are in widespread use. These latte procedures are similar to procedures employed in studies of expansive cements. Although the physical and chemical effects of the phenomena associated with the formation of hydrated sulfates in concrete, aggregate, paste, and mortar have long been studied, many fundamental aspects of these phenomena are still poorly understood. The relation of the physical properties of the material surrounding the locus at which the hydrated sulfate is produced to the unit of expansion that results, the degree to which the expansion can be reduced by restraint, the force required to prevent expansion or to prevent the reaction from taking place, the consequences of the restraining force being uniaxial, biaxial, or triaxial rather than hydrostatic are all matters that appear to fall into the category of those about which less is known than would be desired. Today, when tools for study are vastly improved, when our knowledge of the composition and constitution of the reacting substances has been greatly increased, and when we can see the merging of several practical areas of application of the knowledge to be obtained, appears to be the time when these gaps in knowledge may be expected to be filled. I hope that this paper will indicate to workers concerned with chemical attack on concrete, durability of aggregates, and the study of expansive cements that these areas of study are merging and that progress in each will contribute to progress in all if the experiments are carefully planned in the light of available knowledge.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Miscellaneous Paper

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