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|Title:||Cold weather construction materials. Part 1, Regulated-set cement for cold weather concreting|
|Authors:||Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)|
United States. Army. Office of the Chief of Engineers.
Houston, Billy J.
Hoff, G. C. (George C.)
|Publisher:||Concrete Laboratory (U.S.)|
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Series/Report no.:||Special report (Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory (U.S.)) ; 245.|
Abstract: The U.S. Army carries on construction projects in localities such as Alaska, the northern tier of the United States, northern Europe, Greenland and other arctic sites where the concrete placing season is shortened considerably by the cold climate. At ambient temperatures below 50°F, concreting operations become considerably more expensive since U.S. Army Corps of Engineers specifications require freshly mixed and placed concrete to be protected from ambient temperatures. This report covers part of an investigation to locate and evaluate existing and new cementing materials that allow concrete to be placed at ambient temperatures as low as 15°F. A newly developed cement termed "regulated-set" cement, which is an accelerated set cement, appeared to have great promise and was selected for study in this stage of the investigation. Both mortars and concretes made with regulated-set cement were studied with the following results: 1. The longer freshly mixed regulated-set cement concrete remains above freezing before exposure to below freezing temperatures the greater the subsequent early strength gain; however, considerable strength gain was exhibited by specimens exposed at 15° immediately after casting. Specimens protected one hour before exposure exhibited almost as much strength at 28 days age as specimens cured at 70° ±3°F for the full time. 2. The heat development in 3-, 6- and 12-in.-thick slabs exposed at l 5°F immediately after casting, peaked in one to two hours at 46.5°, 58° and 69° F, respectively, and remained above freezing long enough to gain considerable strength. 3. The introduction of a retarder into the mixture caused an increase in slump and a 13 to 19% decrease in 28-day strength in specimens exposed at both 70° ±3°F and 15° F. There was still considerable strength developed, however, in the specimens exposed at low temperatures.
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