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Title: Use of pozzolan or slag in concrete to control alkali-silica reaction and sulfate attack
Authors: Buck, Alan D.
Keywords: Alkali-silica reaction
Sulfate attack
Fly ash
Silica fume
Natural pozzolan
Concrete additives
Concrete chemistry
Issue Date: Jun-1988
Publisher: Structures Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Technical report (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; SL-88-29.
Description: Technical Report
Abstract: Five different materials (one Class C fly ash, two silica fumes, and two ground granulated iron blast-furnace slags (slag) were characterized by a combination of tests, standard physical and physical plus some petrographic examination. Mortar mixtures were then made using different amounts of each of these materials with high-alkali portland cement. Specimens from these mixtures were tested for expansion due to alkali-silica reaction (ASR) by CRD-C 257 (ASTM C 441) and for expansion due to sulfate attack by CRD-D 211 (ASTM C 1012). The expansion data were evaluated to determine the amount of each material required to control either process or the combined effects of both. A few concrete mixtures were then made using the indicated amounts of the fly ash, silica fume, and slag, and specimens were tested as before to determine the effectiveness of these materials to control deleterious expansion in concrete. In addition, many of the blends of cement with pozzolan or slag that were used in the mortar mixtures were tested to deterlline heat of hydration by CRD-C 229 (ASTM C 186). Mortar mixtures were tested for drying-shrinkage in accordance with CRD-C 256 (ASTM C 311). The results of this work were used to develop a procedure for the evaluation and use of pozzolan (fly ash, silica fume, natural pozzolan) or slag to control the expansive effects of ASR or sulfate attack or both when either or both is considered a potential problem. This procedure is convenient to use and can provide the desired information in as little as 2 or 3 months. Such an empirical procedure is needed because each combination of a pozzolan or a slag with other materials is a unique situation; therefore, previous data for other such materials are not entirely suitable to determine the amount that is needed for a specific situation.
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