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Title: Effects of 40-foot Charleston Harbor Project on tides, currents, and salinities : hydraulic model investigation
Authors: United States. Army. Corps of Engineers. Charleston District.
Benson, Howard A.
Keywords: Charleston Harbor
South Carolina
Hydraulic models
Navigation channels
Channel deepening
Water currents
Publisher: Hydraulics Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
Series/Report no.: Miscellaneous paper (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; H-76-9.
Description: Miscellaneous Paper
Abstract: The Charleston Harbor Model reproduced the Ashley, Cooper, and Wando Rivers and a portion of the Atlantic Ocean. The model was of fixed-bed construction and was equipped with all the necessary appurtenances for accurate reproduction and measurement of tides, tidal currents, salinity intrusion, and other significant phenomena of the prototype. The plan tested consisted of deepening the existing 35-ft-deep Cooper River navigation channel to 40 ft from the ocean to approximately river mile 20.6 and Shipyard Creek to 38 ft. In addition, the proposed Wando River Terminal channel was installed in the model at a depth of 35 ft. Hydraulic and salinity tests were made with the deepened project for two Pinopolis release conditions. The first involved the existing weekly average freshwater discharge at the Pinopolis power generating station of 15,600 cfs. The second flow condition reproduced a weekly average flow at Pinopolis of 3500 cfs. The results of tests for existing flows (15,600 cfs average weekly flow in the Cooper River) indicated that: (A.) the maximum changes in tide range and levels were 0.2 ft in portions of the estuary. (B.) the probable area of heavy shoaling near the upstream end of the Federal channel in the Cooper River was shifted upstream and may be more concentrated at the upper end; (C.) an increase in shoal material moving into the Ashley River probably will occur; (D.) the Wando River shoaling potential was not changed; (E.) the limit of intrusion of salt water (100 ppm) in the Cooper River was shifted from about mile 25.0 to about mile 27.5; and (F.) the salinity conditions in the Ashley River, Wando River, and Clouter Creek were increased 2 to 3 ppt. The results of tests for the average weekly flow of 3500 cfs in the Cooper River indicate that: (A.) changes in tide range and levels were confined between miles 18 and 25 in the Cooper River where a 0.2-ft increase in tide range occurred due to a decrease in low water; (B.) percent of bottom flow in the Cooper River was increased in a downstream direction above the deepened channel; (C.) bottom upstream predominance was increased in the upper end of the navigation channel (mile 16 to mile 20); (D.) changes in shoaling should be minimal with a trend for shoaling to be more concentrated in the upper end of the navigation channel; (E.) a balanced flow predominance in the vicinity of mile 14 could result in a localized increase in shoaling rate; (F.) shoaling should be unchanged in the Wando River and Clouter Creek and slightly increased in the Ashley River; (G.) the limit of saltwater intrusion in Cooper River was advanced about one mile; (H.) salinity increases in the Cooper between miles 10 and 32 were 1 to 7 ppt with the maximum change occurring at mile 23; and (I.) salinity changes in the Ashley and Wando Rivers and Clouter Creek were less than 2 ppt. NOTE: This file is very large. Allow your browser several minutes to download the file.
Rights: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited.
Appears in Collections:Miscellaneous Paper

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