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|Study of embankment performance during overtopping and throughflow. Report 1, Feasibility study
|University of Colorado Boulder. Department of Civil, Environmental, and Architectural Engineering.
Dunn, R. Jeffrey.
Rubble mound breakwaters
|Geotechnical Laboratory (U.S.)
Engineer Research and Development Center (U.S.)
|Miscellaneous paper (U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station) ; GL-89-5 rept.1.
Abstract: Overtopping of earth dams and embankments has resulted in great damages to property and facilities, and in some cases loss of life as well. Due to the large costs and possible consequences of full-scale overtopping studies and the limited accuracy of reduced scale model testing at natural gravity levels, testing of models in a centrifuge at increased gravity levels seems to be a suitable method for studying overtopping and erosion of earth embankments. Tests on model earth and crushed rock embankments using the University of Colorado Geotechnical Centrifuge have indicated the feasibility of this method of testing. Failure modes in the models agreed well with those observed in actual overtopping events. In crushed rock embankments erosion began at the toe and progressed rapidly upstream, eventually leading to breaching failure of embankments. In clay embankments, erosion occurred over the entire downslope area below the spillway crest, with no breaching of the crest occurring for the duration of overtopping flow utilized in the tests. Embankment erosion in flight was recorded using a closed circuit video camera and video tape and a pair of 35mm SLR cameras, mounted to produce stereo pair photos of the embankment. Contour maps of the embankment surface were produced from the stereo pairs. Photographic records were verified by manual measurements of the eroded surface.
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